Albert Pike was born on December 29, 1809, in Boston, and was the oldest of six children born to Benjamin and Sarah Andrews Pike. He studied at Harvard, and later served as a Brigadier-General in the Confederate Army. After the Civil War, Pike was found guilty of treason and jailed, only to be pardoned by fellow Freemason President Andrew Johnson on April 22, 1866, who met with him the next day at the White House. On June 20, 1867, Scottish Rite officials conferred upon Johnson the 4th to 32nd Freemasonry degrees, and he later went to Boston to dedicate a Masonic Temple.
Pike was said to be a genius, able to read and write in 16 different languages, although I cannot find a record anywhere of what those languages were. In addition, he is widely accused of plagiarism, so take with a pinch of salt. At various stages of his life we was a poet, philosopher, frontiersman, soldier, humanitarian and philanthropist. A 33rd degree Mason, he was one of the founding fathers, and head of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, being the Grand Commander of North American Freemasonry from 1859 and retained that position until his death in 1891. In 1869, he was a top leader in the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.
Albert Pike (December 29, 1809–April 2, 1891) was an attorney, soldier, writer, and Freemason. Pike is the only Confederate military officer or figure to be honored with an outdoor statue in Washington, D.C. (in Judiciary Square).
After Pea Ridge, Pike was faced with charges that his troops had scalped soldiers in the field. Maj. Gen. Thomas C. Hindman also charged Pike with mishandling of money and material, ordering his arrest. Both these charges were later found to be considerably lacking in evidence; nevertheless Pike, facing arrest, escaped into the hills of Arkansas, sending his resignation from the Confederate Army on July 12. He was at length arrested on November 3 under charges of insubordination and treason, and held briefly in Warren, Texas, but his resignation was accepted on November 11 and he was allowed to return to Arkansas.
He had in the interim joined a Masonic Lodge and become extremely active in the affairs of the organization, being elected Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite's Southern Jurisdiction in 1859. He remained Sovereign Grand Commander for the remainder of his life (a total of thirty-two years), devoting a large amount of his time to developing the rituals of the order. Notably, he published a book called Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry in 1871, of which there were several subsequent editions.
Pike died in Washington, D.C., aged 81, and was buried at Oak Hill Cemetery (against his wishes—he had left instructions for his body to be cremated). In 1944 his remains were moved to the House of the Temple, headquarters of the Southern Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite.
Albert Pike was a High ranking Freemason and a Southern Confederate General, who in the closing days of the Civil War helped to start a 'terror' campaign against Black Slaves. After the Civil War this terror activity grew and was transformed into what was known by, and is still known today as the Ku Klux Klan. The formation of this 'Secret Group' was in response to the Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Abraham Lincoln, who was Assassinated by Rome and its Jesuit Order, shortly after accepting his second term as US President.
While it is heavily rumored and suspected that Pike helped to form the Ku Klux Klan, at this time this can not be entirely proven per se' (As in smoking gun proof!), although the heavy preponderance of the evidence does strongly suggest this.
The Ku Klux Klan had become very powerful in Southern States, Through the Freemason 'network', and has Infested at all levels, Local, Civic, State and Federal Government bodies.
This power has extended well into the Political Scene of America in the 20th Century.
(and is still with us Today)
By the late 19th Cent, the Klan had also started to 'expand' beyond the Southern States into the North, Mid-west, and also into the Western Territories. By the 1880's Albert Pike himself had become the Top '33rd Degree Freemason' in the World, His title had now become "Grand Supreme Pontiff " which is an ancient Babylonian title. Pontiff also = Pope, there is a very strong Jesuit connection to all of this. His (Pikes) power and Influence now had a Global reach, it was during this time that Pike wrote his now Infamous book 'Morals and Dogma', Authored in 1889, and is still in use today. Currently considered the "Freemason Bible". Of which I myself have a copy, dated at 1919. which puts this Book/Publication at its 2nd Edition printing. As a passing thought or note; If any of you good Brothers and Sisters will notice, assuming you get the chance to get your hands on a "Morals and Dogma" you will find that these books ALWAYS say...for the 'Southern Jurisdiction' of the United States!
I only bring this to your attention because I find it most interesting that even the most competent of researchers whom are looking into the Ku Klux Klan connection seem to miss this point. No I'm not saying that this in its self is a conspiracy, I find it (again) most interesting that this point is rarely if ever mentioned, which I feel is a strong indicator of an obvious Ku Klux Klan connection!
On 14 July, 1889 Pike wrote a letter to his friend "Mazzini" (pictured above) who delivered his message too the the Masonic 23 "Supreme Council's".
Albert Pike received a vision, which he described in a letter that he wrote to Mazzini, dated August 15, 1871. This letter graphically outlined plans for three world wars that were seen as necessary to bring about the One World Order, and we can marvel at how accurately it has predicted events that have already taken place.
Pike's Letter to Mazzini
It is a commonly believed fallacy that for a short time, the Pike letter to Mazzini was on display in the British Museum Library in London, and it was copied by William Guy Carr, former Intelligence Officer in the Royal Canadian Navy. The British Library has confirmed in writing to me that such a document has never been in their possession. Furthermore, in Carr's book, Satan, Prince of this World, Carr includes the following footnote:
"The Keeper of Manuscripts recently informed the author that this letter is NOT catalogued in the British Museum Library. It seems strange that a man of Cardinal Rodriguez's knowledge should have said that it WAS in 1925".
It appears that Carr learned about this letter from Cardinal Caro y Rodriguez of Santiago, Chile, who wrote The Mystery of Freemasonry Unveiled.
To date, no conclusive proof exists to show that this letter was ever written. Nevertheless, the letter is widely quoted and the topic of much discussion.
Following are apparently extracts of the letter, showing how Three World Wars have been planned for many generations.
"The First World War must be brought about in order to permit the Illuminati to overthrow the power of the Czars in Russia and of making that country a fortress of atheistic Communism. The divergences caused by the "agentur" (agents) of the Illuminati between the British and Germanic Empires will be used to foment this war. At the end of the war, Communism will be built and used in order to destroy the other governments and in order to weaken the religions." 2
Students of history will recognize that the political alliances of England on one side and Germany on the other, forged between 1871 and 1898 by Otto von Bismarck, co-conspirator of Albert Pike, were instrumental in bringing about the First World War.
"The Second World War must be fomented by taking advantage of the differences between the Fascists and the political Zionists. This war must be brought about so that Nazism is destroyed and that the political Zionism be strong enough to institute a sovereign state of Israel in Palestine. During the Second World War, International Communism must become strong enough in order to balance Christendom, which would be then restrained and held in check until the time when we would need it for the final social cataclysm." 3
After this Second World War, Communism was made strong enough to begin taking over weaker governments. In 1945, at the Potsdam Conference between Truman, Churchill, and Stalin, a large portion of Europe was simply handed over to Russia, and on the other side of the world, the aftermath of the war with Japan helped to sweep the tide of Communism into China.
(Readers who argue that the terms Nazism and Zionism were not known in 1871 should remember that the Illuminati invented both these movements. In addition, Communism as an ideology, and as a coined phrase, originates in France during the Revolution. In 1785, Restif coined the phrase four years before revolution broke out. Restif and Babeuf, in turn, were influenced by Rousseau - as was the most famous conspirator of them all, Adam Weishaupt.)
"The Third World War must be fomented by taking advantage of the differences caused by the "agentur" of the "Illuminati" between the political Zionists and the leaders of Islamic World. The war must be conducted in such a way that Islam (the Moslem Arabic World) and political Zionism (the State of Israel) mutually destroy each other. Meanwhile the other nations, once more divided on this issue will be constrained to fight to the point of complete physical, moral, spiritual and economical exhaustion…We shall unleash the Nihilists and the atheists, and we shall provoke a formidable social cataclysm which in all its horror will show clearly to the nations the effect of absolute atheism, origin of savagery and of the most bloody turmoil. Then everywhere, the citizens, obliged to defend themselves against the world minority of revolutionaries, will exterminate those destroyers of civilization, and the multitude, disillusioned with Christianity, whose deistic spirits will from that moment be without compass or direction, anxious for an ideal, but without knowing where to render its adoration, will receive the true light through the universal manifestation of the pure doctrine of Lucifer, brought finally out in the public view. This manifestation will result from the general reactionary movement which will follow the destruction of Christianity and atheism, both conquered and exterminated at the same time." 4
Since the terrorist attacks of Sept 11, 2001, world events, and in particular in the Middle East, show a growing unrest and instability between Modern Zionism and the Arabic World. This is completely in line with the call for a Third World War to be fought between the two, and their allies on both sides. This Third World War is still to come, and recent events show us that it is not far off.
More on Albert...
It was in 1905 that the Neale Publishing Company, New York and Washington, published Ku Klux Klan: Its Origin, Growth and Disbandment, written and edited by Walter L. Fleming, incorporating earlier published material by J.C. Lester and D.L. Wilson. Historian Walter Fleming's introduction to this 1905 book explains that he has been given "information in regard to Ku Klux Klan, by many former members of the order, and by their friends and relatives." Dr. Fleming states that "General Albert Pike, who stood high in the Masonic order, was the chief judicial officer of the Klan." On a page of illustrations of important founders of the KKK, Dr. Fleming places General Pike's portrait in the center, makes it larger than the six others on the page, and repeats this information as a caption: "General Albert Pike, chief judicial officer". Dr. Fleming attaches as an appendix to his book, a KKK "prescript" or secret constitution which had then recently been discovered. This document sets forth the regulations of the Klan's "judiciary"' department, over which Albert Pike ruled. This is the internal disciplinary or counterintelligence department. It also corresponds to Pike and the Klan's influence over the regular court system and the legal profession in the post-civil War southern states.
As the boss of all the southern secret societies and simultaneously president of the Tennessee Bar Association, Pike was the grand strategist of Klan "justice." It is to be stressed that Walter Fleming's book was not a slander or hatchet job against Albert Pike. Though it revealed much important data for the first time, it placed the KKK and Pike in the most favorable possible light. The book was a hit among diehard Confederates and Anglo-Saxon "race patriots," and it launched Fleming's career as the dean of southern historians. Fleming became the leading apologist for the KKK, and was the father of the modern historical line that Reconstruction was a corrupt oppression of the South. In September 1903, Fleming had written in the Journal of the Southern History Association: "The very need for such an organization in the disordered conditions of the time caused the Dens [KKK local units] to begin to exercise the duties of a police patrol for regulating the conduct of thieving and impudent negroes and similar "loyal' whites...." Dr. Fleming's biases have not hurt his reputation with established authorities. The National Cyclopedia of American Biography calls his 1905 Ku Klux Klan history "an authoritative account of that organization." The Dictionary of American Biography states bluntly: "Fleming covered the Civil War and Reconstruction in the South more fully than any other man. His works are characterized by ... scholarly objective. A Southerner, Fleming wrote of the sectional conflict with Southern sympathies yet he was more objective than most Southerners of his generation. The historiography of the Civil War and Reconstruction owes much to his indefatigable research, his breadth of scholarship, and power of interpretation." Basing his career on his defense of Pike's KKK, Fleming became dean of arts and sciences at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee.
Pike's Tennessee Klan Command
It was in Nashville that Albert Pike and other Confederate generals met in 1867 to form a southern states-wide terrorist KKK, expanding the little project they had started two years before in Pulaski, Tenn. The organization he formed in Nashville designated Pike its chief judiciary officer, and its Grand Dragon for Arkansas.
As owner-publisher of the Memphis, Tennessee, Daily Appeal, Albert Pike wrote in an editorial on April 16, 1868:
"With negroes for witnesses and jurors, the administration of justice becomes a blasphemous mockery. A Loyal League of negroes can cause any white man to be arrested, and can prove any charges it chooses to have made against him. ...The disenfranchised people of the South ... can find no protection for property, liberty or life, except in secret association.... We would unite every white man in the South, who is opposed to negro suffrage, into one great Order of Southern Brotherhood, with an organization complete, active, vigorous, in which a few should execute the concentrated will of all, and whose very existence should be concealed from all but its members."
(A copy of that issue of Pike's paper may be viewed at the Library of Congress, as may the books mentioned in this article.)
Left: The Albert Pike Memorial Room inside the Supreme Council 33° Temple, which itself is located 13 blocks directly north of the White House in Washington D.C..
But it was as the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite, and the recognized boss of the southern white masonic order, that Pike exercised the great clandestine power that welded the KKK together. Dr. Walter Fleming designates Confederate Major James R. Crowe as the pre-eminent source for his 1905 KKK History, and describes Crowe as one of the original KKK founders in Pulaski. Fleming says that Major Crowe "held high rank in the Masonic order." In his honor roll of "well-known members of the Klan," Dr. Fleming places "General John C. Brown, of Pulaski, Tennessee" and "Colonel Joseph Fussell, of Columbia, Tennessee."
General Brown and Colonel Fussell, like Major Crowe, are identifiable as soldiers of Albert Pike's masonic order. General Brown had been a master mason in the Pulaski lodge for 15 years when the KKK was formed there, and became grand master of Tennessee Masons and governor of Tennessee during the Klan's era of power. Colonel Fussell was commandant of Tennessee's masonic Knights Templar during the Klan rule. The preceding masonic information is taken from Tennessee Templars: A Register of Names with Biographical Sketches of the Knights Templar of Tennessee by James D. Richardson. This James D. Richardson was himself the Commandant of Knights Templar and Grand Master of Masons in Tennessee, and was speaker of the Tennessee House of Representatives during the era of the Klan power. This same James D. Richardson was Albert Pike's successor as commander of the southern Scottish Rite masons. It was this same Richardson who ordered the Pike statue to be erected in Washington, D.C. It was Richardson who, as a U.S. congressman from Tennessee, introduced into the U.S. House of Representatives the infamous 1898 resolution: It called for the federal government to provide federal land to Richardson's masonic organization, on which to put up their statue honoring the master strategist of KKK terror.
The KKK on Parade
Susan Lawrence Davis's 1924 Authentic History, Ku Klux Klan, 1865-1877, repeats the pattern Fleming created in 1905, revealing Pike's KKK role but treating him and the Klan sympathetically. The Davis book was written to celebrate the new, 20th-century KKK, which was just then staging full-dress mass marches in Washington and northern cities such as Detroit. In her chapter on General Pike's leadership of the Klan, Miss Davis applauds Pike's clever stewardship of the KKK secret organization. She reproduces in her KKK history an oil portrait of Albert Pike given to her for the KKK book by Pike's son.
The Tragic Era
The same is true of other book-length histories of the Klan and numerous published biographies of Albert Pike: Pike's role as Klan leader or KKK boss of Arkansas is discussed, but treated as if KKK terrorist murder of African-Americans was "regrettable" but "only natural" and "understandable." In his book, The Tragic Era, Claude Bowers, who served many years as the U.S. ambassador to Spain and to Chile, described Albert Pike as one of the handful of distinguished, respectable founders of the KKK and the Klan's leader in Arkansas.
Bowers describes the KKK as patriotic southerners defending their way of life from out-of-control blacks and northerners.
Bowers wrote that much of the KKK's alleged violence was actually perpetrated by Negroes disguised in Klan robes to wreak vengeance on other Negroes!
The Fiery Cross
"Prominent Southern gentlemen were later cited as state leaders of the Invisible Empire. Alabama claimed General John T. Morgan as Grand Dragon. Arkansas was headed by General Albert Pike, explorer and poet. North Carolina was led by former governor Zebulon Vance, and Georgia by General John B. Gordon, later a U.S. Senator."
Source: The Fiery Cross: Wade, Wyn Craig. Oxford University Press 1998 Page 58 Originally Published: Simon & Schuster 1987 Library of Congress Catalogue Number: 1.Ku Klux Klan (1915-)-History. 2. White Supremacy movements--United States --History. 3. Racism--United States-- History. 322.4'2'0973-dc21 97-44001
Albert Pike also wrote extensively on the mythtical super-race of the Aryans, extolling their virtues, imagined history, and religion which he tried to show was the precursor of Freemasonry in is numerous Published Works. It would seem that Pike was a fellow traveller with Blavatsky on this subject. Fifty years later in Central Europe there will be others who will take up this mantle and use these writings as the basis for a ideology that curiously enough will also use the term 'new world order' to describe it's agenda. Just a co-incidence of course.
History and Evolution of Freemasonry
A further useful quotation from Mr. Pike was also supplied by Mr. Bill Maddox, a Freemason on the Usenet group alt.freemasonry (and vigorously attacked for doing so by the resident "e-m@sons").
"I took my obligations from white men, not from negroes. When I have to accept negroes as brothers or leave masonry, I shall leave it" - Albert Pike 33rd*
Delmar D. Darrah
History and Evolution of Freemasonry 1954, page 329.
The Charles T Powner Co.
A Critical Examination of Objections to the Legitimacy of the Masonry Existing Among the Negroes of America
On Bastille Day 2001 in response to a reference made in the usenet newsgroup alt.freemasonry to the page you are currently reading a mason once again attacked the above reference as being a "anti lie".
He is then publically rebutted by a brother thusly:
Lee Duncan wrote in message
> For example, there is a popular claim among "anti's" that Pike said
> something resembling this: "I took my vows to white men, not
> Negroes...when I must call a Negroe 'brother,' I shall resign from
> Of course, Pike said no such thing. In reality, Pike was a great
> champion of Prince Hall (Negroe) Masonry.
For your consideration the full text of Pike's letter follows as quoted in "A Critical Examination of Objections to the Legitimacy of the Masonry Existing Among the Negroes of America" by William H. Upton, 1902, p.214-15. My thanks to Brother Bennie for prompting me to scan the document because of his contribution.
Normal #673 AF&AM Illinois
Collector of old Masonic books
Views of General ALBERT PIKE, Sovereign Grand Commander, A. & A. Scottish Rite. ALEXANDRIA, Va., 13th September, 1875.
My DEAR FRIEND AND BROTHER.-I can see as plainly as that the negro question is going to make trouble. Then plenty of regular negro Masons and negro lodges in South America and the West Indies, and our folks only stave of the question by saying that negro Masons here are clandestine. Prince Hall Lodge was as regular a Lodge as any lodge created by competent authority, and had a perfect right (as other lodges in Europe did) to establish other lodges, making itself a mother Lodge. That's the way the Berlin lodges, Three Globes and Royal York, became Grand Lodges.
The Grand Orient of Hayti is as regular as any other. So is the Grand Orient of the Dominican Republic, which, I dare say, has negroes in it and negro lodges under it.
Again, if the negro lodges are not regular, they can easily get regularized. If our Grand Lodges won't recognize negro lodges, they have the right to go elsewhere. The Grand Lodge can't say to eight or more Masons, black or white, we will not give you a charter because you are negroes, or because you wish to work the Scottish Rite, and you shall not go elsewhere to get one. That latter part is bosh.
Hamburg recognizes the Grand Lodges. Yes, and so the German Grand Lodge Confederation is going to do, and so will the Grand Orient of France before long.
Of course, if negrophily continues to be the religion established by law of your States, there will be before long somewhere a beginning of recognition of negro lodges. Then the Royal Arch and Templar bodies of negroes must be taken in, and Masonry go down to their level. Will your plan work? I think not. I think there is no middle ground between rigid exclusion of negroes or recognition and affiliation with the whole mass.
If they are not Masons, how protect them as such or at all ? If they are Masons, how deny them affiliation or have two supreme powers in one jurisdiction.
I am not inclined to meddle in the matter. I took my obligations to white men, not to negroes. When I have to accept negroes as brothers or leave Masonry, I shall leave it.
I am interested to keep the Ancient and Accepted Rite uncontaminated, in our country at least, by the leprosy of negro association. Our Supreme Council can defend its jurisdiction, and it is the law-maker. There can not be a lawful body of that Rite in our jurisdiction unless it is created by us.
I am not so sure but that, what with immensity of numbers, want of a purpose worth laboring for, general indifference to obligations, pitiful charity and large expenses, fuss, feathers and fandango, big temples and large debts, Masonry is become a great helpless, inert mass that will some day, before long, topple over, and go under. If you wish it should, I think you can hasten the catastrophe by urging a protectorate of the negroes. Better let the thing drift. Apres noun le, deluge.
The Knights of the Golden Circle
Brigadier General Albert Pike organized and lead the African Slave Owning Cherokee Indians in the Oklahoma Territory who were part of the Masonic Knights of the Golden Circle, in their own secret society called the Keetowah. Under Pikes Generalship this Brigade raped, pillaged, and murdered civilian communities in the Oklahoma and Missori Territories. For these "good works" Brother Albert became a Convicted War Criminal in a War Crimes Trial held after the Civil Wars end. Unfortunately the "Pope" and "Plato" of Freemasonry had to be tried in absentia because he had fled to British Territory in Canada. Second Generation British-American Pike has also been alledged to have been working for the Crown as an agent and key civil war agitator. Pike only returned to the U.S. after his hand picked Scottish Rite Succsessor James Richardon 33° got a pardon for him after, making President Johnson a 33° Scottish Mason in a ceremony held inside the White House itself! In fact given Mr. Pikes leadership roll in the Knights of the Golden Circle and the fact that the name Ku Klux Klan is a version of Circle (Kluklos) it seems pretty clear to most researchers who was higher up the secret society occult ladder and therefore more instrumental in the founding of the Klan - Mason/Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forest or Mason/Confederate General/ Knights of the Golden Circle Leader/British Agent/ Scottish Rite Supreme Council Head Albert Pike 33°.
Dr. Walter Fleming's Academic Credentials by Auburn University.
Where or what are the academic credentials of Masonic "truth seekers" such as the self styled "Grand" Lodge of BC and others that call anyone who says Pike was a key figure in the KKK a liar and "a hater"?
FLEMING, WALTER LYNWOOD, 1874-1932
University professor, dean. Born: April 8, 1874, Brundridge. Parents: William Leroy and Mary Love (Edwood) Fleming. Married: Mary Wright Boyd, September 17, 1902. Children: Four. Education: Alabama Polytechnic Institute, B.S., (with honor), 1896; M.A., 1897; Columbia University, A.M., 1901; Ph.D., 1904. While at Auburn served as an instructor in history and English; assistant librarian. At Columbia, lecturer in history. Served with the Alabama Voluntary Infantry in the Spanish-American War. Taught at West Virginia University, 1903-1907; Louisiana State University, 1907-1917; Vanderbilt University, 1917-1928; dean of the College of Arts and Services, 1923-1926. Member of the editorial board of the Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 1922.
Source: Who Was Who in America, Vol. 1; Owen's The Story of Alabama, and Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement 1.
Author: Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama. New York: Columbia University Press, 1905.
Documentary History of Reconstruction: Political, Military, Social, Religious, Educational & Industrial, 1861 to the Present Time. Cleveland, Ohio: A. H. Clarke Co., 1906-1907.
The Freedman's Savings Bank. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1927.
History of Louisiana State University (1860-1896). Sewanee, Tenn.: The University of the South Press, 1931.
The Reconstruction of the Seceded States, 1865-76. Albany, N.Y.: New York State Education Department, 1905.
The Reconstruction Period: a Syllabus & Reference List. Morgantown, W. Va.: A. G. Sturgiss, 1904.
The Sequel to Appomatox .... New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1921.
Southern Biography. (Vols. 11 & 12 in The South in the Building of the Nation) Richmond, Va.: Southern Historical Publication Society, 1909-1913.
Editor: Documents Relating to Reconstruction. Morgantown, W. Va.: s.n., 1904.
General W.T. Sherman as College President: a Collection of Letters, Documents, and Other Material .... Cleveland, Ohio: The Arthur M. Clarke Co., 1912.
Ku Klux Klan, its Origin, Growth and Disbandment. New York: Neale Pub. Co., 1905.
Auburn University History Department
Detroit Metro Times article:
Top Twenty List of Monuments and Statues in the United States of America that must Topple.
Rather than quake in fear when Masonic Propagandists puts the muscle on (as in the case of the 1990's Pike Statue removal fight in Washington D.C.), a citizen or his political representative ought to put this question to General Pike's defenders: "Do you say that Professor Fleming, Miss Davis, Mr. Bowers, and all the other pro-Confederate historians were liars when they wrote of Pike's marvelous deeds as KKK founder and leader?" They want to have it both ways: first to issue propaganda justifying Klan terrorism as the work of "respectable'' men like Pike; later, when their hero is under attack, to claim that their own propaganda slanders their man!
Essay by John Covici, January 19, 1993
The Crown in the Capitol
The Ku Klux Klan, It's Origins Growth and Disbandment
Authentic History, Ku Klux Klan
The Tragic Era
The Fiery Cross
History and Evolution of Freemasonry
The Published Works of Illustrious Albert Pike 33
Knights of the Golden Circle Cherokee Indians
About Giuseppe Mazzini
Giuseppe Mazzini (June 22, 1805 – March 10, 1872), the "Soul of Italy," was an Italian patriot, philosopher, freemason and politician. His efforts helped bring about the modern Italian state in place of the several separate states, many dominated by foreign powers, that existed until the 19th century. He also helped define the modern European movement for popular democracy in a republican state.
Mazzini was born in Genoa, then part of the Ligurian Republic, under the rule of the French Empire. His father, Giacomo, was a university professor who had adhered to Jacobin ideology; his mother, Maria Drago, was renowned for her beauty and religious fervour. Since a very early age, Mazzini showed good learning qualities (as well as a precocious interest towards politics and literature), and was admitted to the University at only 14, graduating in law in 1826, initially practicing as a "poor man's lawyer".
In 1830 Mazzini traveled to Tuscany, where he became a member of the Carbonari, a secret association with political purposes. On October 31st of that year he was arrested at Genoa and interned at Savona. During his imprisonment he devised the outlines of a new patriotic movement aiming to replace the unsuccessful Carbonari. Although freed in the early 1831, he chose exile instead of life confined into the small hamlet which was requested of him by the police, moving to Geneva in Switzerland.
In 1831 he went to Marseille, where he became a popular figure to the other Italian exiles. He lived in the apartment of Giuditta Bellerio Sidoli, a beautiful Modenese widow who would become his lover, and organized a new political society called La giovine Italia (Young Italy). Young Italy was a secret society formed to promote Italian unity. Mazzini believed that a popular uprising would create a unified Italy, and would touch off a European-wide revolutionary movement. The group's motto was God and the People, and its basic principle was the union of the several states and kingdoms of the peninsula into a single republic as the only true foundation of Italian liberty. The new nation had to be: "One, Independent, Free Republic".
The Mazzinian propaganda met some success in Tuscany, Abruzzi, Sicily, Piedmont and his native Liguria, especially among several military officers. Young Italy counted ca 60,000 adherents in 1833, with branches in Genoa and other cities. In that year Mazzini launched a first attempt of insurrection, which would spread from Chambéry (then part of the Kingdom of Sardinia), Alessandria, Turin and Genoa. However, the Savoy government discovered the plot before it could begin and many revolutionaries (including Vincenzo Gioberti) were arrested. The repression was ruthless: 12 participants were executed, while Mazzini's best friend and director of the Genoese section of the Giovine Italia, Jacopo Ruffini, killed himself. Mazzini was tried in absence and sentenced to death.
Despite this setback (whose victims later created numerous doubts and psychological strife in Mazzini), he organized another uprising for the following year. A group of Italian exiles were to enter Piedmont from Switzerland and spread the revolution there, while Giuseppe Garibaldi, who had recently joined the Giovine Italia, was to do the same from Genoa. However, the Piedmontese troops easily crushed the new attempt.
On May 28, 1834 Mazzini was arrested at Soletta, and exiled from Switzerland. He moved to Paris, where he was again imprisoned on July 5. He was released only after promising he would move to England. Mazzini, together with a few Italian friends, moved in January 1837 to live in London in very poor economic conditions.
On April 30, 1837 Mazzini reformed the Giovine Italia in London, and on November 10 of the same year he began issuing the Apostolato popolare ("Apostleship of the People").
A succession of failed attempts at promoting further uprising in Sicily, Abruzzi, Tuscany and Lombardy-Venetia discouraged Mazzini for a long period, which dragged on until 1840. He was also abandoned by Sidoli, who had returned to Italy to rejoin her children. The help of his mother pushed Mazzini to found several organizations aimed at the unification or liberation of other nations, in the wake of Giovine Italia: Young Germany, Young Poland, Young Switzerland, which were under the aegis of Young Europe (Giovine Europa). He also created an Italian school for poor people. From London he also wrote an endless series of letters to his agents in Europe and South America, and made friends with Thomas and Jane Welsh Carlyle. The "Young Europe" movement also inspired a group of young Turkish army cadets and students who, later in history, named themselves the "Young Turks".
In 1843 he organized another riot in Bologna, which attracted the attention of two young officers of the Austrian Navy, Attilio and Emilio Bandiera. With Mazzini's support, they landed near Cosenza (Kingdom of Naples), but were arrested and executed. Mazzini accused the British government of having passed information about the expeditions to the Neapolitans, and question was raised in the British Parliament. When it was admitted that his private letters had indeed been opened, and its contents revealed by the Foreign Office to the Neapolitan government, Mazzini gained popularity and support among the British liberals, who were outraged by such a blatant intrusion of the government into his private correspondence.
In 1847 he moved again to London, where he wrote a long "open letter" to Pope Pius IX, whose apparently liberal reforms had gained him a momentary status as possible paladin of the unification of Italy. The Pope, however, did not reply. He also founded the People's International League. By March 8, 1848 Mazzini was in Paris, where he launched a new political association, the Associazione Nazionale Italiana.
Mazzini spent all of 1850 hiding from the Swiss police. In July he founded the association Amici di Italia in London, to attract consensus towards the Italian liberation cause. Two failed riots in Mantua (1852) and Milan (1853) were a crippling blow for the Mazzinian organization, whose prestige never recovered. He later opposed the alliance signed by Savoy with Austria for the Crimean War. Also vain was the expeditions of Felice Orsini in Carrara of 1853–54.
In 1856 he returned to Genoa to organize a series of uprisings: the only serious attempt was that of Carlo Pisacane in Calabria, which again met a dismaying end. Mazzini managed to escape the police, but was condemned to death by default. From this moment on, Mazzini was more of a spectator than a protagonist of the Italian Risorgimento, whose reins were now strongly in the hands of the Savoyard monarch Victor Emmanuel II and his skilled prime minister, Camillo Benso, Conte di Cavour. The latter defined him as "Chief of the assassins".
In 1858 he founded another journal in London, Pensiero e azione ("Thought and Action"). Also there, on February 21, 1859, together with 151 republicans he signed a manifesto against the alliance between Piedmont and the King of France which resulted in the Second War of Italian Independence and the conquest of Lombardy. On May 2, 1860 he tried to reach Garibaldi, who was going to launch his famous Expedition of the Thousand in southern Italy. In the same year he released Doveri dell'uomo ("Duties of Man"), a synthesis of his moral, political and social thoughts. In mid-September he was in Naples, then under Garibaldi's dictatorship, but was invited by the local vice-dictator Giorgio Pallavicino to move away.
In 1862 he again joined Garibaldi during his failed attempt to free Rome. In 1866 Venetia was ceded by France, who had obtained it from Austria at the end of the Austro-Prussian War, to the new Kingdom of Italy, which had been created in 1861 under the Savoy monarchy. At this time Mazzini was frequently in polemics with the course followed by the unification of his country, and in 1867 he refused a seat in the Italian Chamber of Deputies. In 1870, during an attempt to free Sicily, he was arrested and imprisoned in Gaeta. He was freed in October due to the amnesty conceded after the successful capture of Rome, and returned to London in mid-December.
Giuseppe Mazzini died in Pisa in 1872. His funeral was held in Genoa, with 100,000 people taking part in it.
Karl Marx, on an interview by R. Landor in 1871, said that Mazzini's ideas represents "nothing better than the old idea of a middle-class republic." Marx believed, especially after the Revolutions of 1848, that this middle class point of view had become reactionary and the proletariat had nothing to do with it.
Mazzini was an early advocate of a "United States of Europe" about a century before the European Union began to take shape. For him, European unification was a logical continuation of Italian unification.
In the following we quote Paul A. Fisher (1991) from his book Their God is the Devil, American Research Foundation, Inc., P.O. Box 5687, Baltimore, Maryland 21210.
* "The moderate and constitutional demands of the Masonic lodges began to be accompanied , by more democratic demands, and there were in Milan, Bologna, Rome, and Naples cells of Illuminati, republican freethinkers, after the pattern recently established in Bavaria by Adam Weishaupt. . . . In the south the first pro-revolutionary centres developed in connection with the Masonic lodges; an example is the Celestini Lodge at Naples." Encyclopedia Britanica, 1977, Vol. 9, History of Italy and Sicily, p. 1155.)
* The rebellion in Italy against Papal governments during 1830s "was known as the 'Risorgimento' which, in reality, was a classic Masonic revolutionary movement. Its leaders were Giuseppe Mazzini, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Camillo Cavour and King Victor Emmanuel II -- all ardent Freemasons." (Fisher , p. 17.) ( King Victor Emmanuel II was later poisoned by his own son, Prince Umberto, who, in turn, was assassinated by the order of Masonic lodges.)
* "Mazzini, according to the Grand Commander of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in America, was the first head of modern Freemasonry in Italy. (ibid, p. 17.)
* "One historian, Charles Heckethorn, in his book, Secret Societies, says the chilling word "Mafia" is an acronym meaning 'Mazzini Autoriza Furti, Incendi, Avelenameti:' that is: 'Mazzini authorizes thefts, arson and poisoning.' (ibid., p.17.)
While attending Genoa University, Giuseppe Mazzini became a 33rd degree Mason, and joined a secret organization known as the Carbonari (their stated goal in 1818: "Our final aim is that of Voltaire and of the French Revolution -- the complete annihilation of Catholicism, and ultimately all Christianity."), where he became committed to the cause of Italian unity. In 1831 he was exiled to France where he founded the 'Young Societies' movement which included Giovane Italia (Young Italy), Young England, etc. This group united those who wanted to achieve unification through force. Mazzini moved to England in 1837 then returned to Italy in 1848 to lead the revolution against the Austrians. Again he was exiled. In the 1850's he led more revolutionary activities, and through his actions Italy became united in 1861 as a single kingdom rather than the republic envisioned by Mazzini. Mazzini, who became known as the 'Evil Genius of Italy,' tried to carry on the activities of the Illuminati through the Alta Vendita Lodge, the highest lodge of the Carbonari. From 1814-48, the group known as the Haute Vente Romaine led the activities of most of Europe's secret societies. In April, 1836 the head of the Haute Vente, whose pseudonym was 'Nubius,' wrote to 'Beppo': "Mazzini behaves too much like a conspirator of melodrama to suit the obscure role we resign ourselves to play until our triumph. Mazzini likes to talk about a great many things, about himself above all. He never ceases writing that he is overthrowing thrones and altars, that he fertilizes the peoples, that he is the prophet of humanitarianism..." In 1860, Giuseppe Mazzini had formed an organization called the 'Oblonica,' a name derived from the Latin 'obelus', which means: "I beckon with a spit (dagger)." Within this group, he established an inner circle called the Mafia. About 1000 A.D., after the Normans had driven the Arabs out of Sicily, they established a feudal system. Overseers to guard each feudi were chosen from known criminals. Skirmishes between the Barons were fought by these criminals. Although feudal privileges were abolished in 1812, these overseers retained control of the land through leasing arrangements. It was this band of criminals that Mazzini gave the name 'Mafia', which was an acronym for Mazzini, Autorizza, Furti, Incendi, and Avvelengmenti. Known as the Mafiosi, they were authorized by Mazzini to commit thefts, arson and murder. It was this organization that came to America during the 1890's with the beginning of Italian immigration.
Cardinal Caro Y Rodriguez published The Mystery of Freemasonry Unveiled in 1925. Rodriguez names several references for a particular letter written by Albert Pike in 1871 suggesting a plan of universal destruction, one of which is Le Palladisme : Culte de Satan-Lucifer dans les Triangles Maconniques by Domenico Margiotta which I quote on the front page of this website, and which I believe indicates that Pike did indeed write something of that nature. Rodriguez alleges that on 15th August 1871 Albert Pike proposed the following plan in a letter to Giuseppe Mazzini. The quoted text below lays out a plan for three world wars ending with Luciferian World Government. WW1 occured as proposed by Pike. WW2 occured as proposed by Pike. WW3 is looking like it will occur as proposed by Pike.